What type of radiation detector is used in a well counter for a wipe test? Same as the annual occupational exposure dose (5rem = 50mSv). Otherwise, click the red Don't know box. Study. Larmor frequency of H+ protons at 1T = 42MHz. 331 Cards – 14 Decks – 32 Learners Linearity checked quarterly (against varying activities of Tc99m). High DQE results in a low dose, is proportional to MTF, is inversely proportional to SNR, and DQE is better at lower spatial resolution (DR>CR). Equipment Hourly Rates What is the skin dose resulting in Temporary Epilation? What's is the equation for the energy (E) of a photon of electromagnetic radiation using Plank's constant (h), speed of light (c), frequency (f), and wavelengths (L)? Note that the entire time needed to acquire the images = #repetitions x TR. What is the relationship between dose and spatial resolution with pixel binning? What is the recommended recall rate in mammography? How would you change mA and kVp to better visualization low contrast tissue? What is the annual equivalent organ dose limit for occupational exposure? Location. What is the NRC dose limit for an unrestricted area (secretary space)? Sampling of the echo occurs during the frequency encoding steps and the number of samples per TR is dictated by one dimension of the matrix (typically the larger dimension because this can be done quickly). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. What is the energy and physical half life of Xenon-133? Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests. Leakage radiation from x-ray house measured at 1m must not exceed what level? An authorized user can give a patient a radioactive material without their consent if their life is in danger, but how long after administration does the authorizes user have to complete the written directive? What are the typical TR and TE cutoffs for T2 weighted imaging? How much contrast do you inject into the elbow joint? Exposure time increases with a smaller focal spot, which increases the chance of motion/blur, as in mag views for calcs. This also explains why higher frequency probes have improved axial resolution but poor penetration. Radiology books for entrance exams like NEET/AIIMS / PGI. Lower mA (5 instead of 500), same kVp (50-120), smaller focal spot (0.3mm). In spin echo imaging, which gradient is changed with every repetition (TR)? Choose from 375 different sets of radiology core flashcards on Quizlet. What is the annual dose limit to the general population? 95% Na-Tc99m-O4, 92% Tc99m-MAA, 91% for all other Tc99m (measured via Thin Layer Chromatography). Increased mA results in "blooming" of focal spot, but increased kVp results in focal spot "thinning". core physics Flashcard Maker: Jazzmin spencer. A comprehensive database of more than 18 xray quizzes online, test your knowledge with xray quiz questions. Increasing the dynamic range on ultrasound will decrease image contrast. How often is Consistency of dose calibrator (Ion Chamber) checked? Describe the air gap method used in mammography? What is automatic exposure control (AEC) and automatic brightness control (ABC)? keV = 100 (need higher ave energy than with iodine despite similar k-edge to ensure adequate penetration with barium). Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Limited Scope X-Ray Operator for MN Core Module. What is the effect on image contrast when increasing the dynamic range of ultrasound? If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Weekly check of image linearity and spatial resolution. Radiology Simplified (Apple Books) is the most accurate review of Core-relevant radiology physics anywhere. Start studying RADIOLOGY CORE. How long must records of recordable events be stored in Nucs? This set of flashcards will cover content associated with the skin and conditions that can happen to the skin that may need to be looked at by a dermatologist. In nuclear medicine renal studies, what time post radiotracer injection is considered the "cortical phase" of imaging? Plain film radiography uses higher power (100kW) than mammography (3kW). What is the energy and physical half life of Fluorine-18? What is the relationship between Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) and dose, MTF, SNR, and spatial resolution? What is the NRC dose rate that defines a restricted area in nuclear medicine? What type of radiation detector is used in dose calibrators? Use these flashcards to support what you know about speech pathology and to learn more about this very helpful profession. How much contrast do you inject into the glenohumeral joint? Both Compton scatter and photoelectric interaction are inversely proportional to the energy of the incident x-ray photons. Geometry checked annually (at at installlation). Radiography is an imaging technique used to provide internal images of the bones, organs, tissues, and vessels. Doubling magnetic field strength will result in a 4x increase in MR signal and 2x increase in MR noise, will result in T1 prolongation, and have no effect on T2. SAR decreased with square of flip angle. How often is Linearity of dose calibrator (Ion Chamber) checked? Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! What is the skin dose resulting in Secondary Ulceration? What is the best keV to maximize barium contrast? What is the NRC dose limit for the public not related to a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure? What is Radiography? keV = 70 (ave energy will be around k-edge of iodine = 35). What is the annual equivalent extremity dose limit for occupational exposure? What are the valve area values for grading aortic stenosis? Study Flashcards On Core Radiology at Cram.com. What is the equation for image resolution in line pairs per millimeter when given the full width half maximum (FWHM)? How much contrast you inject into the radiocarpal joint? Photoelectric effect dominates Compton scatter at lower energies (20-30 KeV), and higher Z materials are much more likely to have photoelectric effect (Z^2)3. What is the recommended #cancers/1000 screened? Consistency checked daily (against a known source, must be within 5%). I made a lot of flashcards directly from this book. Sumer Sethi Radiology Review: Most recommended book by residents who have cleared NEET recently. Increased collimation reduces scatter but requires an increased mAs to compensate for less #photons at the image receptor (increase quantum noise). What type of CT kernel is used for soft tissue vs bone? What is the NRC annual occupational dose limit in total effective dose equivalents for a worker under 18 years of age. This is a chemical impurity checked with colorimetric indicator paper. 10micrograms Al per 1mL Tc (measured via pH paper). How much energy is needed for a positron reaction to occur? 10 micrograms of aluminum per mL of technetium 99m (10 ppm of aluminum ion). If they move, this distinguishes them f…, The gallbladder is completely filled with stones, or one giant…, 1) Gallstone (mobile, exhibits shadowing)... 2) Gallbladder sludg…, - CD4 < 100... - wide range of appearances…, - CD4 < 200... - bilateral perihilar groun…, 1) anterior pararenal space: ascending and descending colon, 2…, a diverse group of neoplasms that make up the most common retr…, Describe SNAC wrist (scaphoid non-union advanced collapse). What is the radionuclide purity limit for Mo per 1milli Tc? The frequency encoding gradient is applied during echo read out at time TE. High Z has more photoelectric effect (PE) and therefore provides greater contrast resolution, especially at an average energy close to its K-edge. Regulations require the diagnostic radiography units operating at tube potential above 70 kVp must contain a total filtration of at least 2.5 mm of aluminum equivalent. What dictates lateral resolution (two adjacent structures, perpendicular to the beam) in ultrasound? ASTR101 Final - Astronomy 101 with Leonard at California State University - San Diego State University - StudyBlue Flashcards radiation protection (68 cards) 2020-05-24 14 . What is the definition of the specific absorption rate (SAR)? How long must mammography centers keep patient records? What is the minimum energy for ionizing radiation? What is the annual whole body dose limit for occupational exposure? Our online xray trivia quizzes can be adapted to suit your requirements for taking some of the top xray quizzes. What type of radiation detector is used in a Geiger Muller counter for hand held radiation surveys? Study 137 Exam 3 study flashcards from Mayumi C. on StudyBlue. What is the activity limit for a Very High Radiation area in Nucs? Learn Clinical Radiology . Study 169 ASTR101 Final flashcards from McKenna W. on StudyBlue. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests. What is the relationship between energy and atomic number (Z) to the photoelectric effect? Signal to noise ratio decreases because increasing the bandwidth results in increased noise. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. What is the relationship between bits and shades of gray? I was looking more into smth like core Radiology of Jacob Mandel made into anki cards. Compton scatter interactions involve incident photons and outer shell atomic electrons. Radiation - Anodes primarily release heat energy by radiating light photons. The probability of Compton scatter is increased with increasing electron density and decreased with increases in the energy of incoming photons. Breast closer to detector (decreased SOD) results in magnification (increased dose, increased blur) and reduces scatter received by the image receptor, Cancer identified on routine screening (4.4%), Cancer identified because of biopsy recommendation (25.4%). EPI = echo planar due to rapid switching of gradient pulses. Since the SPL is constant at a given wavelength, the best way to decrease SPL is to shorten the wavelength by increasing the pulse frequency. Xe-133 = 81Kev, 125hours (note: biological T1/2 = 30seconds). Either decrease Doppler shift (lower frequency transducer or increase Doppler angle) or increase pulse repetition frequency (Nyquist limit = PRF/2). What activity of I-131 is considered a major spill? What is the cause for higher SNR in 3T vs 1.5T MRI? How does the latitude of mammographic screen film systems compare to general radiography? to differentiate from pyogenic abscess, look for restricted diffusion internally in an abscess. Inverse square law = doubling the distance (SID) will quadruple the noise because energy that is twice as far away from the source will spread out over four times the area (resulting in 1/4th the intensity at the image receptor). Cortical phase is 1-3 min post injection and is the time split renal function is calculated. CORE Orthopaedic Medical Center 332 Santa Fe Drive Suite 110 Encinitas, CA 92024 760-943-6700 Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! What is a technical measure of an image system's ability to show contrast across a range of spatial frequencies? 2^bits = # shades of gray (12 bit = 2^12 = 4,096 shades of gray). MSK - Arthritis Matching!. Same as the annual equivalent occupational organ dose limit (50rem = 500mSv). When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again. What MSD size w/o a visible embryo is diagnostic for fetal demise? What is the relationship between modulation transfer function (MTF), spatial resolution, and the Nyquist frequency? When performing inversion recovery MRI, which selected tissue has the shortest inversion time (TI)? How much contrast do you inject into the knee joint? Surface dose rate < 0.5mrem/hr, exposure at 1m = 0. What is the only time it is appropriate to consider termination of pregnancy after fetal radiation exposure? Flashcard Content Overview. What are the Mammogram Training Requirements? How often is Geometry of dose calibrator (Ion Chamber) checked? What is the activity limit for a Radiation area in Nucs? Surface dose rate < 200mrem/hr, exposure at 1m < 10mrem/hr. This is a radionuclide impurity checked with the dose calibrator. Normalization in PET done Monthly ("normal month"). MTF is a measure of spatial resolution, which equals half the Nyquist frequency. Free flashcards to help memorize facts about CORE Radiology. Phase encoding is done in the other shorter matrix dimension and dictates the number of repetitions needed to fill the remainder of the matrix. What is the energy and physical half life of Tc-99m? Program Description. For how many years must calibration records of dose calibrators be kept? core radiology boards review flash cards flashcards resident residency neuro neuroradiology. That's because our editorial process works continuously to eliminate black pearls based on feedback from the 1000+ resident physicians in radiology who've anchored their radiology physics study with this text in the United States and beyond. AEC is used in radiography to adjust mA via overall exposure time, and ABC is used in fluoroscopy to adjust kVp, mA, or both during electronic mag (zoom). What is the (a) surface does limit and (b) exposure limit at 1 m for "white 1" packages ? Information is broken down into modules containing single concepts/topics (e.g., interstitial pulmonary fibrosis). 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